This is an independent informational site covering the Big Bang and related subjects. Items presented here are in-depth, but in laymen's language. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum.
The Big Bang model has been extremely successful at explaining various aspects of the universe and has correctly predicted new observations. In the Big Bang model, time runs backwards per General Relativity until the universe reaches the Plank Density. General Relativity ceases to be valid when the density of the universe exceeds the Planck Density.
The original Big Bang radiation was very strong with high temperatures and high frequencies. The current Cosmic Microwave Background radiation has been traveling incredible lengths and cooled almost to zero. It has shifted from very high frequencies to low frequencies. The radiation has expanded from a point source to the whole observable universe.
Type 1a supernovas that exploded when the universe was half its present age behave the same as current supernovas do. Their "peak brightness" can be used as a "standard candle". Type 1a supernovaes are superb candles because for a few days they can be brighter than entire galaxies (see the distant photo above). Therefore, how bright they appear reveals their distance.
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The early universe was very violent. Galaxies grew quickly and swallowed nearby smaller galaxies. The first stars were probably hundreds of times more massive than the sun and millions of times as bright. They most likely burned for just a few million years before exploding as supernovas. Early galaxies were drawn into clusters and then into super clusters.
Until recently it was generally accepted that the universe would end in a big crunch. While it was known that the universe was expanding, scientists believed that the force of gravity would eventually overcome other forces and it would begin to decelerate. However, if dark energy pushes indefinitely, the universe will continue to expand until it rips itself apart.